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in vitro diagnostics

In vitro diagnostics (IVDs) are diagnostic tests that that can detect diseases, conditions, or infections. In vitro diagnostics test a sample of tissue or bodily fluids, as opposed to testing inside the body, such as:

  • Microbiological culture, which determines the presence or absence of microbes in a sample from the body, usually targeted at detecting pathogenic bacteria
  • Genetic testing
  • Blood glucose
  • Liver function tests
  • Calcium

Electrolytes in the blood, such as sodium, potassium, creatinine and urea.

In vitro tests can be classified according to the location of the sample being tested, including blood and urine tests.

Some tests are used health professional settings such as clinical laboratories, and other tests are for consumers to use at home. The expression “in vitro” comes from Latin, literally meaning “within the glass.” The name reflects the fact that historically such tests were conducted in glass vessels, such as test tubes.

Unlike other forms of medical technology, IVDs never interact directly with the human body. Their value stems from the information they provide. This sets IVDs apart from medical devices and pharmaceuticals, and is part of what makes them unique among health technologies.

In the U.S., in vitro diagnostics products are medical devices as defined in section 210(h) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and may also be biological products subject to section 351 of the Public Health Service Act. Like other medical devices, IVDs are subject to premarket and postmarket controls. IVDs are also subject to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA ’88) of 1988.

The IVD industry is growing steadily due to a number factors, such as increased demand for infectious disease testing as new pathogen strains develop each year, such as in seasonal influenza and H1N1, and increased incidences of hospital-acquired infections. Other factors include aging demographics common to all developed nations and the accompanying increased incidence of chronic disease across all age cohorts of the population; advances in DNA sequencing; and growing demand from emerging markets, which are only now becoming able to pay for diagnostic devices.

Covid-19 Pandemic May Be Creating New IVD Winners and Losers

WITH THE PANDEMIC NOW IN ITS NINTH MONTH, in vitro diagnostics (IVD) company executives and industry consultants recognize the market for clinical laboratory instruments, tests, and products is changing in fundamental ways. “Evidence accumulates that the pandemic is helping create …

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Thermo–Qaigen Merger Stopped, More IVDs Report Q2 Earnings

EACH TIME A MAJOR IN VITRO DIAGNOSTICS (IVD) COMPANY reports its quarterly earnings, clinical lab executives and pathologists gain useful new perspectives as to how the COVID-19 pandemic is fueling demand for IVD instruments, tests, and lab consumables. In this round-up of the most r…

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IVD Firms Report Boom in Sales of COVID-19 Instruments, Tests

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, second quarter earnings reports were a good news/bad news situation for most of the nation’s major in vitro diagnostic (IVD) companies. The good news was that demand for COVID-19 tests meant increased sales and revenues for IVD firms selling those…

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Project Santa Fe Labs Deliver Value with Tests

CEO SUMMARY: No bigger threat looms over the financial security of the nation’s clinical laboratories than healthcare’s transition from fee-for-service payment to value-based reimbursement. To navigate that transition successfully, medical labs and pathology groups will need to adopt …

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Quest Acquires Two Labs, Two Other Health Firms

CEO SUMMARY: In the span of four days in September, Quest Diagnostics agreed to buy two lab companies and the lab testing service line of a third firm. In August, it purchased wellness company Provant Health, which had earlier filed a bankruptcy action. Each of these transactions helps Qu…

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FDA Issues Response to Draft Legislation to Regulate LDTs

DURING HER ADDRESS TO THE ANNUAL MEETING of the American Clinical Laboratory Association meeting in March, Rep. Diana DeGette (D-Colo.) explained why she and others in Congress had developed the Diagnostic Accuracy and Innovation Act (DAIA), a discussion draft that would give the FDA…

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June 18, 2018 Intelligence: Late Breaking Lab News

In New Jersey last week, David Nicoll, 44, the former owner of Biodiagnostic Laboratory Services (BLS) of Parsippany, N.J. was sentenced to 72 months in a federal prison. On the same day, his brother, Scott Nicoll, 37, who also worked at BLS, was sentenced to 43 months in prison. Bo…

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Why Pharma, Private Equity Want to Reshape Lab Industry

CEO SUMMARY: A disruptive force that involves precision medicine, pharmaceutical companies, and venture capital investors is poised to reshape the clinical laboratory industry. Genetic knowledge makes it possible to match cancer drugs to specific mutations. Pharma companies and professio…

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A coming transformation: Control over important diagnostic technologies is about to change hands

This is an excerpt from a 2,920-word article in the March 26, 2018, issue of THE DARK REPORT. The complete article is available for a limited time to all readers, and available at all times to paid members of the Dark Intelligence Group. CEO SUMMARY: He…

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GE Healthcare Sells Omnyx to Inspirata

CEO SUMMARY: Now that the FDA has cleared a digital pathology for use in primary diagnosis, interest in DP is building. Inspirata purchased Omnyx and its assets because the Omnyx Dynamyx digital pathology software has strong features that could be integrated into Inspirata’s digital pat…

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